LA-13638 Reference Set

A Review of Criticality Accidents: 2000 Revision

0. T.P. McLaughlin, S.P. Monahan, N.L. Pruvost, V.V. Frolov, B.G. Ryazanov, V.I. Sviridov, “A Review of Criticality Accidents: 2000 Revision.” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-13638 (May 2000).

1. Stratton, “W. R. A Review of Criticality Accidents.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Los Alamos, NM., LA-3611, (1967).

2. Stratton W. R., revised by D. R. Smith. “A Review of Criticality Accidents.” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, DOE/NCT-04, (March 1989).

3. Paxton, Hugh C. “Glossary of Nuclear Criticality Terms.” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-11627-MS, Los Alamos, NM, (October 1989).

4. Barbry, “F. SILENE Reactor: Results of Selected Typical Experiments.” Report SRSC n223, CEA Institute de Protectionet de Surete Nucleaire , Department de Recherches en Securite, Service de Recherches en Surete et Criticite, Centre d'Etudes de VALDUC - SRSC 21120 Is-sur-Tille, France, (September 1994).

5. Lecorche, P., and R. L. Seale. “Review of the Experiments Performed to Determine the Radiological Consequences of a Criticality Accident.” Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN., Y-CDC-12, (1973).

6. Dunenfeld, M.S., and R. K. Stitt. “Summary Review of the Kinetics Experiments on Water Boilers.”NAA-SR-7087, (1963). This report is proprietary information of North American Aviation Co.

7. “Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Y-12 Plant June 16, 1958.” Union Carbide Nuclear Company, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN., Y-1234, (1958).

8. Callihan, D., and J. T. Thomas. “Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant—I, Description and Physics of the Accident.” Health Phys., 1, 363-372, (1959).

9. “Oak Ridge Y-12 Accidental Excursion, June 16, 1958.” Nucleonics, 16, Nov., pp. 138-140, 200-203, (1958).

10. Hurst, G. S., R. S. Ritchie, and R. L. Emerson. “Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Part III, Determination of Doses.” Health Physics, 2, p. 121 (1959).

11. Paxton, H. C., R. D. Baker, W. T. Maraman, and R. Reider. “Nuclear-Critical Accident at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on December 30, 1958.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LAMS-2293 (1959).

12. Paxton, H. C., R. D. Baker, W. J. Maraman, and R. Reider. “Los Alamos Criticality Accident, December 30, 1958.” Nucleonics, 17(4), pp. 107-108, 151 (1959).

13. Ginkel, W. L., C. W. Bills, A. O. Dodd, K. K. Kennedy, and F. H. Tingey. “Nuclear Incident at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on October 16, 1959.” Phillips Petroleum Co., Atomic Energy Div., Idaho Falls, ID, IDO-10035 (1960).

14. Paulus, P. C., A. O. Dodd, K. K. Kennedy, F. H. Tingey, and F. M. Warzel. “Nuclear Incident at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on January 25, 1961.” Phillips Petroleum Company, Atomic Energy Div., Idaho Falls, ID, IDO-10036 (1961).

15. Latchum J. W., F. C. Haas, W. M. Hawkins, and F. M. Warzel. “Nuclear Incident at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant of January 25, 1961.” La-54-61A, Phillips Petroleum Co., (4 April 1961). 61. La-54-61A, Phillips Petroleum Co., (4 April 1961).

16. Olsen A. R., R. L. Hooper, V. O. Uotinen, and C. L. Brown. “Empirical Model to Estimate Energy Release from Accidental Criticality.” Trans. Am. Nuc. Soc., 19, pp. 189-191, (October 1974).

17. Hetrick, D. L. Letter to Thomas P. McLaughlin, (14 July 1999).

18. Callihan, D. “Accidental Nuclear Excursion in Recuplex Operation at Hanford in April 1962.” Nucl. Safety, 4(4), pp. 136-144, (1963).

19. Clayton, E. D. “Further Considerations of Criticality in Recuplex and Possible Shutdown Mechanism.” Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Hanford, Wash. HW-77780 (1963).

20. Zangar, C. N. “Summary Report of Accidental Nuclear Excursion Recuplex Operation 234-5 Facility.” HW74723, Richland Operations Office, AEC, TID-18431 (1962).

21. Investigation Committee. “Final Report of Accidental Nuclear Excursion Recuplex Operation 234-5 Facility.” Hanford Operations Office, H W-74723, (August, 1962).

22. Clayton, E. D. “The Hanford Pulser Accident.” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 46, pp. 463-464, (June 1984).

23. Nakache, F. R., and M. M. Shapiro. “The Nuclear Aspects of the Accidental Criticality at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, July 24, 19 64.” Supplemental Report, United Nuclear Corp., New Haven, Conn., Fuels Div., TID-21995 (1964).

24. Kouts, H., et al. “Report of the AEC Technical Review Committee, (Nov. 6, 1964).”

25. Daniels, J. T., H. Howells, and T. G. Hughes. “Criticality Incident-Aug 24, 1970, Windscale Works.” Trans. Am. Nuc. Sec., 14, pp. 35-3 6 (1971).

26. Evans, M. C. “A Review of Criticality Accidents Within the European Community.” Trans. Am. Nuc. Sec., 46, pp. 462-463 (1984).

27. Evans, M.C., “A Review of Criticality Accidents Within the European Community.” Notes from oral presentation at the Summer Meeting of the American Nuclear Society, New Orleans, (June 1984).

28. “Recovery of ICPP from Criticality Event of October 17, 1978 - Part II (Support and Safety Justification of the Specific Approach to Emptying H-100).” Allied Chemical, ACI-366, (January 1979).

29. Casto, W. R. (ed.). “ICPP Criticality Event of October 17, 1978.” Nuclear Safety, vol. 21, No. 5, (October 1980).

30. “Report of the Accident Investigation Committee on a Critical Accident in Uranium Fuel Fabrication Plant.” The Nuclear Saf ety Commission, Japan (December 42, 1999).

31. “Report No. 3 in the 5th Meeting in 2000 of the Nuclear Safety Commission: 'Scope of Radiation Dose to Persons by the Critical Accident in JCO Co., Ltd. Tokai Site and Its Follow-up.'” Nuclear Safety Bureau of Science and Technology Agency, Japan, (January 2000).

32. McCoy, F. R. III, T.P. McLaughlin, and L.C. Lewis. “U.S. Department of Energy Trip Report of Visit to Tokyo and Tokai-Mura, Japan on October 18-19, 1999 for Information Exchange with Government of Japan Concerning the September 30, 1999 Tokai-Mura Criticality Accident.” U. S. Department of Energy.

33. “NEA Nuclear Science Committee. International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. NEA/NSC/DOC-(95)-03, (September 1998).

34. Paxton, H. C., and N. L. Pruvost. “Critical Dimensions of Systems Containing 235U, 239Pu, and 233U, 1986 Revision.” LA-10860-MS, Fig. 4, p. 14, (July 1987).

35. Taylor, E. F., and J. A. Wheeler. “Spacetime Physics.” W. H. Freeman and Co.,p. 60, San Francisco, p. 60, (1966).

36. Callihan, D., W. Ozeroff, H. Paxton, and C. Schuske. “Nuclear Safety Guide.” U. S. Atomic Energy Commission report TID-7016, (1957).

37. Hayes, D. F. “A Summary of Accidents and Incidents Involving Radiation in Atomic Energy Activities, June 1945 through December 1955.” U. S. Atomic Energy Commission TID-5360, (1956).

38. King, L. D. P. “Design and Description of Water Boiler Reactors.” Proc. Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, Geneva 1955, vol. 2, p p. 372-391, (1955).

39. Leonard, Jr., B. R. “A Study of the Radiation Burst in the Hanford Homogeneous Reactor.” Hanford Works, Richland, WA, HW-24327, (1952).

40.Thomas, J. T., and A. D. Callihan. “Radiation Excursions at the ORNL Critical Experiments Laboratory. I. May 26, 1954. II. February 1, 1956.”Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL-2452, (1958).

41. Callihan, D. “Excursion at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility, January 30, 1968.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL-TM-2207, (1968).

42. Paxton, H. C. “Critical-Assembly Booby Traps.” Nucleonics 16, Mar., pp. 80-81, (1958).

43. Paine, Jr., R. W., R. S. Dike, J. D. Orndoff, and D. P. Wood. “A Study of an Accidental Radiation Burst.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory , Los Alamos, NM, LA-1289, (1951).

44. Paxton, H. C. “Booby Traps.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, AECD-4240, (1957).

45. Mallary, E. C., G. E. Hansen, G. A. Linenberger, and D. P. Wood. “Neutron Burst from a Cylindrical Untamped Oy (Enriched U) Assembly.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-1477, (1952).

46. Peterson, R. E., and G. A. Newby. “An Unreflected U-235 Critical Assembly.” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 1, 112-125, (1956).

47. Wimett, T. F., L. B. Engle, G. A. Graves, G. R. Keepin, Jr., and J. D. Orndoff. “Time Behavior of Godiva Through Prompt Critical.” Los A lamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-2029, (1956).

48. Paxton, H. C. “Godiva, Topsy, Jezebel-Critical Assemblies at Los Alamos.” Nucleonics 13, Oct., 48-50, (1955).

49. A. M. Voinov, V. P. Egorov, A. E. Zapolsky, et al. “Facility for neutronics testing of simple critical assemblies.” VANT, section Nuclear Reactor Physics, 2, pp. 21-29, (1992).

50. Paxton, H. C. “Godiva Wrecked at Los Alamos.” Nucleonics 15, Apr., p. 104, (1957).

51. Stratton, W. R., T. H. Colvin, and R. B. Lazarus. “Analyses of Prompt Excursions in Simple Systems and Idealized Fast Reactors.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958 (United Nations, Geneva), vol. 12, pp. 196-206, (1958).

52. Wimett, T. F., and J. D. Orndoff. “Applications of Godiva II Neutron Pulses.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958 (United Nations, Geneva), vol. 10, pp. 449-460, (1958).

53. Callihan, D., “Criticality Excursion of November 10, 1961.” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL-TM-139, (1962).

54. Kuvshinov M. I., P. F. Cherednic, I. I. Ignatov, et al. “Experimental research of coupled systems including BIR pulse reactor and a subcritical assembly.” VANT, Section: Pulse reactors and simple critical assemblies, 2, pp. 3-15, (1988).

55. Kathren, R. L., W. C. Day, D. H. Denham, and J. L. Brown. “Health Physics Following a Nuclear Excursion: The LRL Incident of March 26, 1963.” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, UCRL-7345, (1963).

56. “Fast Burst Reactor Facility Operations report Number 2.” White Sands Missile Range, White Sands, NM, (1965). This reference has been carried over from a previous edition of the document. At the time of printing it was not possible to locate a copy of the reference.

57. Teryokhin, V. A., V. D. Perezhogin, and Y. A. Sokolov. “Criticality Measurements at VNIITF Review.” In Proc. of the Fifth Internationa l Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety, September 17-21, 1995, pp. 4.44-4.47, (1995).

58. Voloshin, N. P., I. S. Pogrebov, and V. A. Teryokhin. “RFNC-VNIITF Physical Experimental Division and a Short Historical Sketch of Cri tical Mass Measurements.” In Proc. of the Fifth International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety, September 17-21, 1995, pp. P-31- P -36, (1995).

59. Kazi, A. H., H. G. Dubyoski, and E. W. Dickinson. “Preoperational Test Experience with the Army Pulse Radiation Facility Reactor.” In Proc. of the National Topical Meeting on Fast Burst Reactors, Albuquerque, NM (U. S. Atomic Energy Commission), pp. 353-371, (1969).

60. Voloshin, N. P. “Summary of the expert findings about the causes of the nuclear accident at RFNC-VNIIEF.” Sarov. Atompressa, 26 (262), (July 1997).

61. Punin, V. T., I. G. Smirnov, and S. A. Zykov. “The Accident of the RFNC-VNIIEF Criticality Test Facility.” Atomnaya energia, 83.2, pp. 154-156, (1997).

62. Khodalev, G. F., E. Yu. Tarasova, A. K. Zhitnik, et al. “An exposure dose for the experimentalist during the criticality accident at R FNC-VNIIEF.” Atomnaya energia, 85.2, pp. 153-158 (1998).

63. Argonne National Laboratory. “Controlled Nuclear Chain Reaction: The First 50 Years.” American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL, pp . 52-54 (1992).

64. Brittan, R. O., R. J. Hasterlik, L. D. Marinelli, and F. W. Thalgott. “Technical Review of ZPR-1 Accidental Transient-The Power Excursi on, Exposures, and Clinical Data.” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, ANL-4971, (1953).

65. Lewis, W. B. “The Accident to the NRX Reactor on December 12, 1952.” Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., Chalk River Project, Chalk River, On tario, Canada, DR-32, (1953).

66. Hurst, D. C., and A. G. Ward. “Canadian Research Reactors.” In Progress in Nuclear Energy, Series II, Reactors, vol. I. R. A. Charpie, D. J. Hughes, D. J. Littler, and M. Trocheris, Eds. Pergamon Press, London, pp. 1-48, (1956).

67. Henderson, W. J., A.C. Johnson, and P. R. Tunnicliffe. An Investigation of Some of the Circumstances Pertinent to the Accident to the NRX Reactor of December 12, 1952. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Ontario, NEI-26, (March 31, 1953).

68. Dietrich, J. R. “Experimental Determinations of the Self-Limitation of Power During Reactivity Transients in a Subcooled, Water-Moderated Reactor.” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, ANL-5323, (1954).

69. “Reactors.” Nucleonics, 13, Sept., 40-45, (1955).

70. Dietrich, J. R. “Experimental Determinations of the Self-Regulation and Safety of Operating Water-Moderated Reactors.” In Proc. Intern . Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, Geneva, 1955, United Nations, New York, vol. 13, pp. 88-101, (1956).

71. Dietrich, J. R., and D. C. Layman. “Transient and Steady State Characteristics of a Boiling Reactor. The Borax Experiments, 1953.” Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, AECD-3840, (1954).

72. Thompson, T. J., and J. G. Beckerley, Eds. “The Technology of Nuclear Reactor Safety,” vol. 1 (The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1964).

73. Lushbaugh, C. C. “Reflections on Some Recent Progress in Human Radiobiology.” In Advances in Radiation Biology, vol. 3, L. G. Augenste in, R. Mason, and M. Zelle, Eds. (Academic Press Inc., pp 277-314., (1969).

74. Tardiff, A. N. “Some Aspects of the WTR and SL-1 Accidents.” In Proc. Symp. Reactor Safety and Hazards Evaluation Techniques. vol. 1, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 43-88, (1962).

75. Nyer, W. E., G. O. Bright, and R. J. McWhorter. “Reactor Excursion Behavior.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 3rd, Geneva, 1964, vol. 13, United Nations, Geneva, pp. 13-25, (1965).

76. Miller, R. W., A. Sola, and R. K. McCardell, “Report of the SPERT-1 Destructive Test Program on an Aluminum, Plate-type, Water-Modera ted Reactor,” Phillips Petroleum Company, IDO-16883, (June 1964).

77. Parfanovich, D. M. “Summary of Two Criticality Accidents at the Russian Research Center” Kurchatov Institute. INEEL/EXT-98-00409, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, J. Blair Briggs, ed., (August 1998).

78. “Water-Moderated Hexagonally Pitched Lattices of U(9O%)O2 + Cu Fuel Rods with GD or SM Rods.” HEU-COMP-THERM-004, International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, NEA/N S C/DOC(95)03/II, 1996 Version or Later.

79. US NRC Information Notice No. 83-66, Supplement 1: Fatality at Argentine Critical Facility, (May 25, 1984).

80. Frisch, O. R. “Controlled Production of an Explosive Nuclear Chain Reaction.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-397, (1945).

81. De Hoffman, F., B. T. Feld, and P. R. Stein. “Delayed Neutrons from 235U After Short Irradiation.” Phys. Rev., 74, (10) 1330-1337, (19 48).

82. Brittan, R. O. “Analysis of the EBR-1 Core Meltdown.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd Geneva, 1958, vol. 12, United Nations, Geneva, pp. 267-272, (1958).

83. Kittel, J. H., M. Novick, and R. F. Buchanan. “The EBR-1 Meltdown-Physical and Metallurgical Changes in the Core.” Argonne National Labo ratory, Argonne, IL, ANL-5731, (1957).

84. “Summary Report of HTRE No. 3 Nuclear Excursion.” General Electric Co., Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Dept., Cincinnati, OH, APEX-509, (19 59).

85. Remley, M. E., J. W. Flora, D. L. Hetrick, D. R. Muller, E. L. Gardner, R. E. Wimmer, R. K. Stitt, and D. P. Gamble. “Experimental Studies on the Kinetic Behavior of Water Boiler Type Reactors.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva 1958, vol. 11 , United Nations, Geneva, pp. 447-456 (1958).

86.Stitt, R. K. “A Summary of Experimental Results of the Spherical Core Investigations in the Kewb Program.” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 2 (1), Su ppl., 212-213, (1959).

87. Hetrick, D. L., J. W. Flora, E.L. Garner, et.al. “Preliminary Results on the Kinetic Behavior of Water Boiler Reactors.” Atomics International, North American Aviation, NAA-SR-1896, (April 15, 1987).

88. Malenfant, R. E., H. M. Forehand, and J. J. Koelling. “Sheba: A Solution Critical Assembly.” Trans. Amer. Nucl. Sec. 35 p. 279, (1980).

89. Forbes, S. G., F. L. Bentzen, P. French, J. E. Grund, I. C. Haire, W. E. Nyer, and R. F. Walker. “Analysis of Self-Shutdown Behavior in the Spert-1 Reactor.” Phillips Petroleum Company, Atomic Energy Div., Idaho Falls, Idaho, IDO-16528, (1959). This reference has been carried over from a previous edition of the document. At the time of printing it was not possible to locate a copy of the document.

90. Nyer, W. E., and S. G. Forbes. “SPERT-1 Reactor Safety Studies.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958 , vol. 11, United Nations, Geneva, pp. 470-480, (1958).

91. Schroeder, F., S. G. Forbes, W. E. Nyer, F. L. Bentzen, and G. O. Bright. “Experimental Study of Transient Behavior in a Subcooled, Water-Moderated Reactor.” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 2, 96-115, (1957).

92. Stone, R. S., H. P. Sleeper, Jr., R. H. Stahl, and G. West. “Transient Behavior of TRIGA, a Zirconium-Hydride, Water-Moderated Reactor .” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 6, 255-259, (1959).

93. Koutz, S. L., T. Taylor, A. McReynolds, F. Dyson, R. S. Stolne, H. P. Sleeper, Jr., and R. B. Duffield. “Design of a 10-kw Reactor for Isotope Production, Research and Training Purposes.” In Proc. UN Intern. Conf. Peaceful Uses At. Energy, 2nd, Geneva, 1958, vol. 10, United Nations, Geneva, pp. 282-286, (1958).

94. Knief, R. A., “Nuclear Criticality Safety: Theory and Practice.” American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL, p. 11, (1985).

95. Hansen, G. E. “Burst Characteristics Associated with the Slow Assembly of Fissionable Materials.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-1441, (1952).

96. Fuchs, K. “Efficiency for Very Slow Assembly.” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, LA-596, (1946).

97. Hansen, G. E. “Assembly of Fissionable Material in the Presence of a Weak Neutron Source.” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 8, 709-719, (1960).”

98. Keepin, G. R. “Physics of Nuclear Kinetics.” Addison Wesley Pub. Co., Reading, MA, p. 287, (1965).

99. Keepin, G. R, and C. W. Cox. “General Solution of the Reactor Kinetics Equations.” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 8, 670-690, (1960).

100. Gamble, D. P. “A Proposed Model of Bubble Growth During Fast Transients in the Kewb Reactor.” Nucl. Sci. Eng., 2 (1), Suppl., 213-214 , (1959).

101. Wilson, Robert E., and Jensen, William D. “Reflections on the 1978 ICPP Criticality Accident.” Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety, Vol. IV, 1540-1544,(1999).