LA-12808 Reference Set

Nuclear Criticality Safety Guide

0. N. L. Pruvost, H. C. Paxton, editors, “Nuclear Safety Guide,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-12808 (1996).

1. A. D. Callihan, W. J. Ozeroff, H. C. Paxton, C. L. Schuske, “Nuclear Safety Guide”, US Atomic Energy Commission report TID-7016 (1957).

2. J. T. Thomas, editor, “Nuclear Safety Guide, TID-7016, Revision 2,” US Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG/CR-00951 ORNL/NUREG/CSD-6 (1978).

3. “Nuclear Safety Guide,” US Atomic Energy Commission report TID-7016, Rev. I (1961).

4. American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Safety in Operations with Fissionable Materials Outside Reactors, ANSI/ANS-8.1-1983, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1983).

5. American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements, ANSI/ANS-8.15-1981, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1981).

6. F. William Walker, Josef R. Parrington, and Frank Feiner, editors, Nuclides and Isotopes, Fourteenth Edition, GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA, 12-13 (1989).

7. Proceedings of the 4th Annual Scientific & Technical Conference on Nuclear Energy and Human Safety, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia, June 28 - July 2, 1993, NE-93 (1993).

8. H. C. Paxton, “Glossary of Nuclear Criticality Terms,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-11627-MS (1989).

9. “Glossary of Terms in Nuclear Science and Technology,” prepared by ANS-9, the American Nuclear Society Standards Subcommittee on Nuclear Terminology and Units, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1986).

10. E. D. Clayton, “Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality,” Pacific Northwest Laboratories report PNL-SA-4868 Rev. 5 (1979).

11. H. C. Paxton and N. L. Pruvost, “Critical Dimensions of Systems Containing 235U, 239Pu, and 233U., 1986 Revision,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-10860-MS (1987).

12. L. M. Petrie and N. F. Landers, “KENO V.a, An Improved Monte Carlo Criticality Program With Supergrouping,” NUREG/CR-0200, Volume 2, Section F11, ORNL/NUREG/CSD-2/VI/R2 (1984).

13. J. F. Briesmeister, editor, “MCNP - A General Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code, Version 4A,” Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-12625-M (1993).

14. “MONK6 - A Monte Carlo Code for Criticality Safety Calculations,” ANSWERS Service, AEA Reactor Services, Winfrith Technology Center, Dorchester, UK (1990).

15. S. Glasstone and M. C. Edlund, The Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ (1952).

16. A. M. Weinberg and E. P. Wigner, The Physical Theory of Neutron Chain Reactors, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL (1958).

17. H. S. Isbin, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Theory, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, NY (1963).

18. G. I. Bell and S. Glasstone, Nuclear Reactor Theory, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY (1970).

19. J. R. Lamarsh, Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1972).

20. A. F. Henry, Nuclear-Reactor Analysis, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1975).

21. J. J. Duderstadt and L. J. Hamilton, Nuclear Reactor Analysis, Wiley, New York, NY (1976).

22. S. Glasstone and A. Sesonske, Nuclear Reactor Engineering, 3rd Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY (1981).

23. R. A. Knief, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Theory and Practice, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1985).

24. R. A. Knief, Nuclear Engineering, Theory and Technology of Commercial Nuclear Power, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis/ Hemisphere, Washington, DC (1992).

25. American National Standard Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety, ANSI/ANS-8.19-1984, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1984).

26. American National Standard Nuclear Criticality Safety Training, ANSI/ANS-8.20-1991, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1991).

27. American National Standard Criteria for Nuclear Criticality Safety Controls in Operations with Shielding and Confinement, ANSI/ANS-8.10-1983, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1983).

28. American National Standard Safety Guide for the Performance of Critical Experiments, ANSI-N405-1975/ANS-1, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1975).

29. American National Standard for Safety in Conducting Subcritical Neutron Multiplication Measurements in Situ, ANSI/ANS-8.6-1983, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1983).

30. W. R. Stratton, revised by D. R. Smith, “A Review of Criticality Accidents,” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report DOE/NCT-04 (1989).

31. American National Standard Use of Borosilicate-Glass Raschig Rings as a Neutron Absorber in Solutions of Fissile Material, ANSI/ANS-8.5-1986, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1986).

32. G. E. Hansen and H. C. Paxton, “Reevaluated Critical Specifications of Some Los Alamos Fast-Neutron Systems,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-4208 (1969).

33. J. T. Mihalczo, J. J. Lynn, J. R. Taylor, and G. E. Hansen, “Measurements With an Unreflected Uranium (93.2%) Metal Sphere,” Proceedings of a Topical Meeting on Physics and Methods in Criticality Safety, Nashville, TN, September 19-23, 1993, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL, 26-33 (1993).

34. G. R. Keepin, “Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Safeguards: Common Technologies and Challenges,” Proceedings of the Conference 50 Years with Nuclear Fission, Gaithersburg, MD, April 26-28, 1989, National Academy of Sciences and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington, DC (1989).

35. R. L. Price and N. L. Pruvost, “Inventory Difference Information and Criticality Safety,” Proceedings of an International Topical Meeting on Safety Margins in Criticality Safety, San Francisco, CA, November 26-30, 1989, American Nuclear Society report ISBN:89448-t42-2, 165-167 (1989).

36. R. G. Taylor, “Monitoring for Uranium Accumulations in Diffusion Plant Equipment,” Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant report K-L-6316 (1973).

37. J. T. Mihalczo, E. D. Blakeman, G. E. Ragan, E. B. Johnson, and Y. Hachiya, “Dynamic Subcriticality Measurements Using the 252Cf-Source-Driven Noise Analysis Method,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 104, 314-338 (1990).

38. E. R. Martin, D. F. Jones, and L. G. Speir, “Passive Segmented Gamma Scan Operation Manual, ” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-5652-M (1974).

39. R. B. Walton, W. I. Whitted, and R. A. Forster, “Gamma-Ray Assay of Low-Enriched Uranium Waste,” Nuclear Technology, 24, 81-92 (1974).

40. C. J. Umbarger and L. R. Cowder, “Portable Radioactivity Monitor for Liquid Effluents, Surface Contaminations, and Bulk Solid Wastes,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 121, 491-498 (1974).

41. J. T. Mihalczo, “Randomly Pulsed Neutron Measurements for Safeguards Interrogation,” Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant report Y-DR-79 (1972).

42. J. E. Foley and L. R. Cowder, “Assay of the Uranium Content of Rover Scrap with the Random Source Interrogation System,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-5692-MS (1974).

43. R. Berg, R. Swennen, G. Birkhoff, L. Bondar, J. Ley, and B. Busca, “On the Determination of the Pu-240 in Solid Waste Containers by Spontaneous Fission Neutron Measurements. Application to Reprocessing Plant Waste,” EUR 5158e, Joint Nuclear Research Centre, ISPRA Establishment, Italy (1974).

44. T. D. Reilly, E. R. Martin, J. L. Parker, L. G. Speir and R. D. Walton, “A Continuous In-Line Monitor for UF6 Enrichment,” Nuclear Technology, 23, 318-327 (1974).

45. J. L. Forstner, “Nuclear Safety Control in the Chemical Processing Facilities of the Savannah River Plant,” Proceedings of a Symposium on Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm, November 1-5, 1965, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 627-639 (1965).

46. American National Standard Criticality Accident Alarm System, ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1986).

47. J. M. Juran, F. M. Gryna, Jr., and R. S. Bingham, Jr., editors, Quality Control Handbook, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (1974).

48. American National Standard Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities, ASME NQA-1-1989 Edition, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY (1989).

49. American National Standard Quality Assurance Requirements for Nuclear Facility Applications, ASME NQA-2-1989 Edition, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY (1989).

50. J. S. Arendt, D. K. Lorenzo, and A. F. Lusby, “Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry, A Manager's Guide to Quantitative Risk Assessment,” JBF Associates, Inc. (1989).

51. J. R. Wilson, “Applications of PRA to Criticality Safety at ICPP,” Proceedings of an International Topical Meeting on Safety Margins in Criticality Safety, San Francisco, CA, November 26-30, 1989, American Nuclear Society report ISBN: 89448-142-2, 186-191 (1989).

52. R. R. Jackson, “Science Applications International Corporation's Experience in Applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment Techniques to Nuclear Criticality Accident Analysis,” Proceedings of an International Topical Meeting on Safety Margins in Criticality Safety, San Francisco, CA, November 26-30, 1989, American Nuclear Society report ISBN: 89448-142-2, 179-182 (1989).

53. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.33, “Assumptions Used for Evaluating the Potential Radiological Consequences of Accidental Nuclear Criticality in a Fuel Reprocessing Plant,” US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1977).

54. W. Thomas and B. Gmal, “In-Depth Analysis of Accidental Criticality in a Reprocessing Plant,” Proceedings of an International Topical Meeting on Safety Margins in Criticality Safety, San Francisco, CA, November 26-30, 1989, American Nuclear Society report ISBN: 89448-142-2, 207-213 (1989).

55. T. P. McLaughlin, “Process Criticality Accident Likelihoods, Consequences and Emergency Planning,” Nuclear Energy, 31, No. 2, 143-147 (1992).

56. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety, Albuquerque, NM, September 17-21, 1995 (1995).

57. R. L. Seale, “Consequences of Criticality Accidents,” Nuclear Criticality Safety, US Atomic Energy Commission report TID-26286, 16-24 (1974).

58. A. D. Callihan and J. T. Thomas, “Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant - I,” Health Physics, 1, 363-372 (1959).

59. J. D. McLendon, “Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant - II,” Health Physics, 2, 21-29 (1959).

60. G. S. Hurst, R. H. Richie, and L. C. Emerson, “Accidental Radiation Excursion at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant - III,” Health Physics, 2, 121-133 (1959).

61. T. L. Shipman, “Acute Radiation Death Resulting from an Accidental Nuclear Critical Excursion,” Journal of Occupational Medicine, Special Supplement, 147-149 (1961).

62. H. C. Paxton, R. D. Baker, W. J. Maraman, and Roy Reider, “Nuclear-Critical Accident at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on December 30, 1958,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LAMS-2293 (1959).

63. W. C. Roesch et al., “Dosimetry Investigation of the Recuplex Criticality Accident,” Health Physics, 9, 757-768 (1963).

64. T. G. Hughes, “Criticality Incident at Windscale,” Nuclear Engineering International, 17, No. 189, 95-97 (1972).

65. W. Sweet, “Kyshtym Visit Gives First Look at Soviet Plutonium Production Complex,” Physics Today, November 1989, 87-89 (1989).

66. L. A. Buldakov, S. N. Demin, V. A. Kostyuchenko, N. A. Koshurnikova, L. Yu. Krestinina, M. M. Saurov, Z. B. Tokarskaya, V. L. Shvedov, and 1. A. Ternovskij, “Medical Consequences of the Radiation Accident in the Southern Urals,” Proceedings of an International Symposium on Recovery Operations in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Vienna, November 6-10, 1989, IAEA-SM-316/55-2, 419-431 (1989).

67. “Investigation of Incident in Ion Exchange Resin,” HRC report 3719, Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company, Richland, WA (1976).

68. B. L. Broadhead and C. M. Hopper, “Updated Tool for Nuclear Criticality Accident Emergency Response,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 72, 218-220 (1995).

69. J. T. Thomas, “Criticality of Large Systems of Subcritical U(93) Components,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-CDC-1 (1967).

70. P. Lécorché and R. L. Seale, “A Review of the Experiments Performed to Determine the Radiological Consequences of a Criticality Accident,” Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant report Y/CDC-12 (1973).

71. American National Standard for Nuclear Criticality Control and Safety of Plutonium-Uranium Fuel Mixtures Outside Reactors, ANSI/ANS-8.12-1987, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1987).

72. H. K. Clark, “Subcritical Limits for Plutonium Systems,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 79, 65-84 (1981).

73. H. K. Clark, “Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 81, 351-378 (1982).

74. H. K. Clark, “Subcritical Limits for Uranium-233 Systems,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 81, 379-395 (1982).

75. E. D. Clayton, H. K. Clark, Gordon Walker, and R. A. Libby, “Basis for Extending Limits in ANSI Standard for Mixed Oxides to Heterogeneous Systems,” Nuclear Technology, 75, 225-229 (1986).

76. J. W. Webster, “Calculated Neutron Multiplication Factors of Uniform Aqueous Solutions Of 233U and 235U,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-CDC-2 (1967).

77. S. R. Bierman, G. R. Smolen, and T. Matsumoto, “Experimental Criticality Data Comparing Organic and Water Moderation,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 54, 195-196 (1987).

78. H. K. Clark, “Effect of Distribution of Fissile Material on Critical Mass,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 24, 133-141 (1966).

79. W. H. Roach and D. R. Smith, “Estimates of Maximum Subcritical Dimensions of Single Fissile Metal Units,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-CDC-3 (1967).

80. D. R. Smith and W. U. Geer, “Critical Mass of a Water-Reflected Plutonium Sphere,” Nuclear Applications and Technology, 7, No. 5, 405-408 (1969).

81. W. R. Stratton, “Criticality Data and Factors Affecting Criticality of Single Homogeneous Units,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-3612 (1964).

82. C. G. Chezem and R. G. Steinke, “Low-Enrichment Uranium-Metal Exponential Experiments,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 31, 549 (1967).

83. M. Darrouzet, J. P. Chaudat, E. A. Fischer, G. Ingram, J. E. Sanders, W. Scholtyssek, “Studies of Unit Kinf Lattices in Metallic Uranium Assemblies Zebra 8H Sneak 8, Ermine, and Harmonie UK,” Proceedings of an International Sympostum on Physics of Fast Reactors, Tokyo, October 16-19, 1973, Committee for the International Symposium on Physics of Fast Reactors, A28 (1973).

84. C. E. Newlon, “The Effect of Uranium Density on the Safe U-235 Enrichment Criterion,” Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant report K-1550 (1962).

85. E. D. Clayton, H. K. Clark, D. W. Magnuson, J. H. Chalmers, Gordon Walker, N. Ketzlach, Ryohei Kiyose, C. L. Brown, D. R. Smith, and R. Artigas, “Basis for Subcritical Limits in Proposed Criticality Safety Standard for Mixed Oxides,” Nuclear Technology, 35, 97-111 (1977).

86. H. K. Clark, “Critical and Safe Masses and Dimensions of Lattices of U and U02 Rods in Water,” DP-1014, Savannah River Laboratory (1966).

87. H. K. Clark, “Maximum Safe Limits for Slightly Enriched Uranium and Uranium Oxide,” Proceedings of a Symposium on Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm, November 1-5, 1965, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 35-49 (1965).

88. R. C. Lloyd, “Buckling Measurements of Fuel Elements in a Random Array, Water Moderated,” Nuclear Physics Research Quarterly Report, October-December, 1957, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory report HW-54591, 35-36 (1957).

89. R. C. Lloyd, “Buckling Measurements for Fuel Elements in a Random Array,” Nuclear Physics Research Quarterly Report, January-March, 1958, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory report HW-55879, 12-13 (1958).

90. J. T. Thomas, “Calculated Criticality of Water Moderated Oxides of Uranium-233, Thorium-232, and Carbon Mixtures,” Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant report Y-DR-107 (1973).

91. R. C. Lloyd and E. D. Clayton, “Criticality Safety Data Applicable to Processing Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 59, 21-26 (1976).

92. J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and D. Callihan, “Critical Mass Studies, Part IX, Aqueous U235 Solutions,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2367 (1958).

93. J. K. Fox and L. W. Gilley, “Critical Parameters for Poisoned Annular Cylinders Containing Aqueous Solutions of U235,” Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending September 1, 1958, Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2609, 31-33 (1958).

94. C. Clouet d'Orval, E. Deilgat, M. Houelle, and P. Lécorché, “Experimental Research in France on Criticality Problems” (in French), Proceedings of a Symposium on Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm, November 1-5, 1965, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 193-213 (1965).

95. J. E. Tanner and H. M. Forehand, “Critical Experiments for Large Scale Enriched Uranium Solution Handling,” Proceedings of a Topical Meeting on Criticality Safety in the Storage of Fissile Material, Jackson, WY, September 8-11, 1985, American Nuclear Society report ISBN:89448-119-3, 65-79 (1985).

96. R. C. Lloyd and T. Koyama, “Criticality Experiments with Mixed Plutonium-Uranium Nitrate Solution at Plutonium Fractions of 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 in Annular Cylindrical Geometry,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 56, 318-319 (1988).

97. American National Standard Nuclear Criticality Safety Criteria for Steel-Pipe Intersections Containing Aqueous Solutions of Fissile Material, ANSI/ ANS-8.9-1987, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1987).

98. D. Dickinson and C. L. Schuske, “An Empirical Model for Safe Pipe Intersections Containing Fissile Solution,” Nuclear Technology, 10, 179-187 (1971).

99. E. B. Johnson, “The Nuclear Criticality of Intersecting Cylinders of Aqueous Uranyl Fluoride Solutions,” Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant report Y-DR-129 (1974).

100. N. F. Cross, G. E. Whitesides, and R. J. Hinton, “Monte Carlo Analysis of Experimentally Critical Pipe Intersections,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 17, 268 (1973).

101. L. B. Engle, G. E. Hansen, and H. C. Paxton, “Reactivity Contributions of Various Materials in Topsy, Godiva, and Jezebel,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 8, 543-569 (1960).

102. J. D. Orndoff, H. C. Paxton, and G. E. Hansen, “Critical Masses of Oralloy at Reduced Concentrations and Densities,” Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-1251 (1951).

103. R. C. Lloyd, E. D. Clayton, and L. E. Hansen, “Criticality of Plutonium Nitrate Solutions Containing Soluble Gadolinium,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 48, 300-304 (1972).

104. R. C. Lloyd and E. D. Clayton, “Effect of Boron and Gadolinium on the Criticality of Plutonium-Uranium Systems,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 23, 234-237 (1976).

105. E. D. Clayton and C. L. Brown, “Criticality and Nuclear Safety of Slightly Enriched Uranium,” Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, 61, No. 60, 33-43 (1965).

106. V. 1. Neeley, J. A. Berberet, and R. H. Masterson, “kinfinityof Three Weight Percent 235U Enriched U03 and U02(NO3)2 Hydrogeneous Systems,” HW-66882, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (1961).

107. R. Gwin and D. W. Magnuson, “The Measurement of Eta and Other Nuclear Properties of 233U and 235U in Critical Aqueous Solutions,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 12, 364-380 (1962).

108. W. E. Converse, R. C. Lloyd, E. D. Clayton, and W. A. Yuill, “Critical Experiments Using High-Enriched Uranyl Nitrate with Cadmium Absorber,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 32, 328-330 (1979).

109. J. T. Thomas, “Reflectors, Infinite Cylinders, Intersecting Cylinders, and Nuclear Criticality,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 67, 279-295 (1978).

110. R. C. Lloyd, C. R. Richey, E. D. Clayton, and D. R. Skeen, “Criticality Studies with Plutonium Solutions”, Nuclear Science and Engineering, 25, 165-173 (1966).

111. G. R. Handley, R. C. Robinson, and J. C. Cline, “Effects of Concrete Composition in Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculations,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 61, 182-184 (1990).

112. H. F. Henry, J. R. Knight, and C. E. Newlon, “General Application of a Theory of Neutron Interaction,” Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant report K-1309 (1956).

113. H. C. Paxton, “History of Density-Analog Storage Criteria,” Proceedings of a Topical Meeting on Criticality Safety in the Storage of Fissile Material, Jackson, WY, September 8-11, 1985, American Nuclear Society report ISBN: 89448-119-3, 346-352 (1985).

114. J. T. Thomas, “Remarks on Surface Density and Density Analog Representation of Array Criticality,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 22, 299-300 (1975).

115. J. T. Thomas, “Surface Density and Density Analogue Models for Criticality in Arrays of Fissile Materials,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 62, 424-437 (1977).

116. M. C. Evans and J. R. Bowe, “Applications of the Limiting Surface Density Method to Transport and Storage of Special Nuclear Materials,” Proceedings of a Topical Meeting on Criticality Safety in the Storage of Fissile Material, Jackson, WY, September 8-11, 1985, American Nuclear Society report ISBN: 89448-119-3, 307-321 (1985).

117. D. R. Smith, “Criteria and Evaluation for the Storage of Fissile Materials in a Large and Varied Reactor Research Development Programme,” Proceedings of a Symposium on Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm, November 1-5, 1965, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 667-677 (1965).

118. H. C. Paxton, “Density-Analog Techniques,” Proceedings of the Livermore Array Symposium, Livermore, CA, September 23-25, 1968, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory report LRL-CONF-680909, 6-11 (1968).

119. American National Standard Guide for Nuclear Criticality Safety in the Storage of Fissile Materials, ANSI-NI6.5-1975/ANS-8.7, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL (1975).

120. H. K. Clark, “A Simple Practical Method for Calculating Interaction,” Proceedings of a Symposium on Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm, November 1-5, 1965, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 87-102 (1965).

121. H. K. Clark, “Interaction of Fissionable Units,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 15, 20-28 (1963).

122. H. K. Clark, “Application of a Simple, Practical Method for Computing Interaction to Arrays Found Experimentally to be Critical,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 20, 307-313 (1964).

123. A. F. Thomas and R. A. Scriven, “Neutron Interaction in Fissile Assemblies,” Progress in Nuclear Energy, Series IV, Vol. 3 - Technology, Engineering and Safety, Pergamon Press, London, 253-291 (1960).

124. J. T. Thomas, “Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of U(93.2)-Metal Cylinders,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 52, 350-359 (1973).

125. 0. C. Kolar, H. F. Finn, and N. L. Pruvost, “Livermore Plutonium Array Program: Experiments and Calculations,” Nuclear Technology, 29, 57-72 (1976).

126. J. T. Thomas, “Experimental and Calculated System Criticality,” Proceedings Of a Symposium on Criticality Control of Fissile Materials, Stockholm, November 1-5, 1965, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 149-175 (1965).

127. J. T. Thomas, “The Criticality of Cubic Arrays of Fissile Materials,” Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant report Y-CDC-10 (1971).

128. D. Yearwood, E. D. Clayton, and B. L. Koponen, “Anomalous Effects of Moderation in Transportation and Storage Arrays - Revisited,” Proceedings of a Topical Meeting on Physics and Methods in Criticality Safety, Nashville, TN, September 19-23, 1993, American Nuclear Society, LaGrange Park, IL, 99-101 (1993).

129. J. T. Thomas “Experimental Measurements with Arrays of U(97.7)F6 Neutron-Coupled Through Concrete,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 19, 199-200 (1974).

130. G. D. Ellis and G. R. Handley, “Enriched Uranium Storage in Steel Tubes Embedded in Concrete,” Proceedings of a Topical Meeting on Criticality Safety in the Storage of Fissile Material, Jackson, WY, September 8-11, 1985, American Nuclear Society report ISBN:89448-119-3, 186-198 (1985).

131. J. T. Thomas, “A Criticality Indicator System for Storage of Fissile Materials,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report UCCND-CSD-INF-48 (1975).

132. J. T. Thomas, “Criticality of 233U Aqueous Nitrate Solutions in Reflected and Unreflected Arrays,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 10, 538-539 (1967).

133. R. C. Lloyd, E. D. Clayton, and J. H. Chalmers, “Criticality of Arrays of 233U Solution,” Nuclear Applications, 4, 136-141 (1968).

134. R. E. Rothe, “A Survey of Fissile Solution Storage Methods: Champion the Poisoned Tube Tank,” Proceedings of a Topical Meeting on Criticality Safety in the Storage of Fissile Material, Jackson, WY, September 8-11, 1985, American Nuclear Society report ISBN: 89448-119-3, 42-64 (1985).

135. J. T. Thomas, J. K. Fox, and E. B. Johnson, “Critical Mass Studies, Part XIII. Borosilicate Glass Raschig Rings in Aqueous Uranyl Nitrate Solutions,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-TM-499 (1963).

136. J. T. Thomas, “Critical Experiments with Aqueous Solutions of 233U02(NO3)2,” Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending May 31, 1968, Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL -4280, 53-55 (1968).

137. R. C. Lloyd, S. R. Bierman, and E. D. Clayton, “Criticality of Plutonium Nitrate Solutions Containing Borated Raschig Rings,” Nuclear Science and Engineering, 50, 127-134 (1973).

138. R. C. Lloyd and E. D. Clayton, “Criticality of Pu-U Nitrate Solution Containing Glass Raschig Rings,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 21, 236-237 (1975).

139. J. K. Fox and L. W. Gilley, “Critical Parameters of Aqueous Solutions of U235,” Neutron Physics Division Annual Progress Report for Period Ending September 1, 1957, Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL-2389, 71-83 (1959).

140. D. Callihan, “Experiments for Criticality Control,” Proceedings of a Symposium on Criticality Control in Chemical and Metallurgical Plants, KarIsruhe, Germany, 589-614 (1961).

141. O. D. Thompson and D. D. Yearwood, “Plutonium Solution Storage in Arrays of Six-inch Pipes,” Proceedings of a Topical Meeting on Criticality Safety in the Storage of Fissile Material, Jackson, WY, September 8-11, 1985, American Nuclear Society report ISBN: 89448-119-3, 92-98 (1985).

142. Safety Series No. 6 , Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, 1985 Edition, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1985).

143. Safety Series No. 37, Advisory Material for the Application of the IAEA Transport Regulations, Second Edition, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1982).

144. 49 CFR 173.4, Regulations, Packaging and Transportation, Radioactive Materials, Department of Transportation (1991).

145. 10 CFR 71 , Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1991).

146. DOE Order 5480.3 (1985), Safety Requirements for the Packaging and Transportation of Hazardous Materials,, Hazardous Substances, and Hazardous Wastes (1985).

147. W. C. Jordan, N. F. Landers, and L. M. Petrie, “Validation of KENO V.a, Comparison with Critical Experiments,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory report ORNL/CSD/TM-238 (1986).

148. J. P. Nichols, C. L. Schuske, and D. W. Magnuson, “Use of Borosilicate-Glass Raschig Rings as a Neutron Absorber in Solutions of Fissile Material,” Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant report Y-CDC-8 (1971).

149. E. O. Nurmi, “Use of Borosilicate-Glass Raschig Rings in a Hostile Environment,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 19, 181 (1974).

150. R. F. Christy and J. A. Wheeler, “Chain Reaction of Pure Fissionable Materials in Solution,” US Government report CP-400 (1943).